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Sign in. Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index 30 29 iindex 40 Rumana Chowdhury Verified email at ucl.

Mauricio R. Marc Guitart Masip Associate professor Verified email at ki. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach. Article First Online: 12 February A brief review of cognitive effort Why study cognitive effort?

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Psychological theories of cognitive effort Numerous and diverse theories implicate cognitive effort as mediating behavior. What is cognitive effort? Effort as a mediator Many theories point to cognitive effort as mediating the behavioral or physiological consequences of motivation. Theories about cognitive effort Relative to the number of theories implicating effort as a mediator, fewer have aimed to explain cognitive effort directly.

Preference functions describe choice dimensions in terms of a common currency subjective value, utility, etc. These offers are step-wise titrated Fig. Indifference points are critical because they indicate a psychophysical equivalence between greater reward e. Open image in new window.

Risk: The Neural Basis of Decision Making

Cognitive effort discounting COGED refers to the observation that the subjective value SV of the larger offer is reduced when it is paired with more demanding tasks. The paradigm thus quantifies effort as a cost, or conversely, how willing a decision-maker is to engage in a more demanding task.

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By holding both the baseline low-demand task and the large reward amount constant, we can examine indifference points across load levels, normalized by the reward magnitude e. The ability to measure effort in terms of a cost holds great promise, enabling a direct investigation of, for example, opportunity cost models of effort. It also yields a novel measure of cognitive motivation that can be used to predict cognitive performance, or to characterize individuals according to how costly they find an effort.


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We also found a positive individual-difference correlation between COGED and delay discounting, such that those who find cognitive effort more costly are also more impulsive delay discounters, whereas those who find effort inexpensive vary widely in their impulsivity Fig. This correlation suggests that shared mechanisms underlie subjective effort and self-control in intertemporal choice cf. Reward is not subjective value Inference in decision-making research should be based on SV and not reward magnitude, yet the distinction is often overlooked.

SV can be used to dissociate choice dimensions Choice dimensions may overlap conceptually, but systematic analysis of SV functions over those dimensions can dissociate them. Individual differences in SV as a clinical predictor Longstanding philosophical concerns argue against interindividual utility comparisons: Simply put, there is no meaningful way to assess whether one person values a commodity as much as another.

Isolating decision-making from task engagement and passive evaluation Behavioral economic valuation procedures isolate decision-making from task experience. Open questions and research strategies Why is cognitive effort aversive? For what behaviors is sensitivity to cognitive effort an explanatory trait variable? What peripheral physiological variables track effort? What neural systems are involved in effort-based decision-making?

Do the same neural systems mediate cognitive and physical effort? Do the same neural systems involved in effort-based decision-making also track effortful engagement? Alessi, S. Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure.

Behavioural Processes, 64, — Aston-Jones, G. An integrative theory of locus coeruleus—norepinephrine function: Adaptive gain and optimal performance. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, — Barnes, A. Endogenous human brain dynamics recover slowly following cognitive effort. PLoS One, 4, e Basten, U. How the brain integrates costs and benefits during decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, , — Beatty, J.

The pupillary system. Cacioppo, L. Berntson Eds.

Neuroscience of Preference and Choice : Raymond J. Dolan :

Google Scholar. Bickel, W. Behavioral and neuroeconomics of drug addiction: Competing neural systems and temporal discounting processes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 90, S85—S Bogacz, R. The physics of optimal decision making: A formal analysis of models of performance in two-alternative forced-choice tasks. Psychological Review, , — Boksem, M. Mental fatigue, motivation and action monitoring.

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Biological Psychology, 72, — Mental fatigue: Costs and benefits. Brain Research Reviews, 59, — Bonner, S. A review of the effects of financial incentives on performance in laboratory tasks: Implications for management accounting. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 12, 19— Botvinick, M. Conflict monitoring and decision making: Reconciling two perspectives on anterior cingulate function. Effort discounting in human nucleus accumbens. Hierarchically organized behavior and its neural foundations: A reinforcement learning perspective.

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Neuropsychopharmacology, 36, 74— Bouret, S. Ventromedial and orbital prefrontal neurons differentially encode internally and externally driven motivational values in monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, — Braver, T. The variable nature of cognitive control: A dual mechanisms framework.